- Focus on Synthetic Biology
- A multi-purpose toolkit to enable advanced genome engineering in plants
- Synthetic metabolic pathways for photobiological conversion of CO2 into hydrocarbon fuel
- Multiplexed Gene Editing and Protein Overexpression Using a Tobacco mosaic virus Viral Vector
- A New Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus Allows Large Protein Overexpression for Rapid Function Analysis
- Genetic engineering, synthetic biology and the light reactions of photosynthesis
- From Plough to Pipette – Tools for Crop Development
- Rise of The Plant Machines
- Why Bill Gates is betting on a start-up that prints synthetic DNA
- Synthetic Biology Meets Plant Metabolism
- Molecular Plant: Special Issue on Plant Metabolism and Synthetic Biology (2014)
- Unrestrained markerless trait stacking in Nannochloropsis gaditana through combined genome editing and marker recycling technologies
- Computational design of environmental sensors for the potent opioid fentanyl
- A general strategy to construct small molecule biosensors in eukaryotes
- Engineering synthetic regulatory circuits in plants
- Engineering Quantitative Trait Variation for Crop Improvement by Genome Editing
- Plant SynBio: Feynman and Flowers
- Loop Assembly: a simple and open system for recursive fabrication of DNA circuits
- A robust gene-stacking method utilizing yeast assembly for plant synthetic biology
- The Sainsbury Laboratory Golden Gate Cloning Tutorial
- Intron-containing algal transgenes mediate efficient recombinant gene expression in the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
- Rational engineering of photosynthetic electron flux enhances light-powered cytochrome P450 activity
- Application of protoplast technology to CRISPR/Cas9 mutagenesis: from single‐cell mutation detection to mutant plant regeneration
- A Golden Gate Modular Cloning Toolbox for Plants
- GoldenBraid 2.0: A Comprehensive DNA Assembly Framework for Plant Synthetic Biology
- A CRISPR/Cas9 Toolbox for Multiplexed Plant Genome Editing and Transcriptional Regulation
- Photosynthetic artificial organelles sustain and control ATP-dependent reactions in a protocellular system
- Improved Base Editor for Efficiently Inducing Genetic Variations in Rice with CRISPR/Cas9-Guided Hyperactive hAID Mutant
- Synthetic strategies for plant signalling studies: molecular toolbox and orthogonal platforms
- Precise A·T to G·C Base Editing in the Rice Genome
- A CRISPR–Cpf1 system for efficient genome editing and transcriptional repression in plants
- Chimeric 3’ flanking regions strongly enhance gene expression in plants
- Synthetic MicroProteins: Versatile Tools for Posttranslational Regulation of Target Proteins
- Synthetic hormone-responsive transcription factors can monitor and re-program plant development
- A Robotic Platform for High-throughput Protoplast Isolation and Transformation
- Synthetic Biology Meets Plant Metabolism
- A Green-Light-Responsive System for the Control of Transgene Expression in Mammalian and Plant Cells
Why Bill Gates is betting on a start-up that prints synthetic DNA
Profile of Ginkgo Bioworks
- Microsoft billionaire founder Bill Gates is among the venture investors in Ginkgo Bioworks.
- The Boston-based start-up's synthetic biology reconfigures the genome of organisms to make products such as perfume, drink sweeteners and fertilizer replacements.
- Its computers are printing their own DNA, and Ginkgo is amassing one of the world's largest stores of "usable" designer genetic code.
Shared from https://www.cnbc.com/2018/05/2...
Andrew Zaleski | @ajzaleski
In 2014, Ginkgo Bioworks entered Y Combinator as the first biotech company ever accepted by the famed accelerator. Four years later the Boston-based synthetic biology start-up, founded by a team of MIT scientists in 2009, has raised $429 million, including from Cascade Investment, the asset management firm of Bill Gates, and is reportedly worth $1 billion.
Over the last several years, Ginkgo has
developed an automated process for combining genetic parts that has
made it the largest designer of printed DNA in the world. That
breakthrough has positioned the start-up to change the face of a variety
of industries and helped to earn it the No. 21 spot on the 2018 CNBC Disruptor 50 list.
Last October, Ginkgo entered into a $100 million partnership with the global health-care and agriculture giant Bayer to engineer microbes capable of producing fertilizer for crops, like corn, wheat and rice.
"We're really building the platform that lets you design organisms," said CEO Jason Kelly, who studied chemical engineering at MIT.
Essentially, synthetic biology involves
reconfiguring the genome of an organism to get it to do something
entirely new. Kelly likens it to computer programming, only with genetic
sequences. So think of DNA as computer code, and then imagine you can
design sequences of DNA on the computer, physically print out those
sequences, and insert them into microorganisms such as yeast and
bacteria so they make products like rose-scented oil for perfume or
sweeteners for beverages.
"We're learning how to
rewrite the code of life," said Frances Arnold, a professor of chemical
engineering, bioengineering, and biochemistry at the California
Institute of Technology. "We're seeing a move toward making things that
either chemistry cannot make or can't make efficiently but biology
The idea of modifying the
DNA of organisms precedes the moniker of synthetic biology by many
years. Genetic modification dates back to the 1980s, and genetic
engineering for biofuels in the agricultural, pharmaceutical and energy
industry has been common practice for some time. Think of Monsanto's Bt
corn, which uses a modified bacteria to protect crops from damaging
insects, and you have the idea. Such work has normally been the purview
of highly trained scientists, but companies like Ginkgo are catching
fire now, thanks to a confluence of factors.
"We can read DNA and write DNA very cheaply now. We can synthesize DNA in ways we couldn't just five years ago," Arnold said.
Senior automation engineer optimizing automated lab protocol on colony picker.
Last December, Ginkgo
opened Bioworks3, its third laboratory space. It also closed a $275
million funding round, money that will go toward financing a fourth lab
space set to open later this year.
At Ginkgo's labs the
difficult work of synthetic biology is conducted through computer
software and run by robotics. This is the platform idea that animates
Kelly's company: By figuring out a standardized way to combine genetic
parts, the same process can be applied across a number of industries to
produce goods at fractions of their current costs or to create entirely
"That's the core idea we
have: DNA is code, and you can read and write it in these factories and
test how it works," Kelly said. "So you're going to go to your computer,
specify the exact sequence you want, print it, put the DNA into a tube
or into an organism and test how it works."
The fertilizer market is ripe for a huge disruption
That's why Bayer chose to partner with Ginkgo. The
artificial fertilizers commonly used across the United States are
produced by sucking in atmospheric nitrogen gas, which plants can't use,
into chemical plants that then convert the gas into a solid form plants
can use. But nitrogen fertilizer products from chemical plants are
notorious for releasing tons of carbon into the atmosphere.
"Agriculture has exploded
because we've been able to provide synthetic nitrogen fertilizers. What
a lot of people are looking for today is a more sustainable long-term
approach," said Mike Miille, CEO of Joyn Bio, the joint venture Bayer
and Ginkgo formed last fall.
Crops like soybeans and
peanuts have microbes in their roots that perform the same reaction that
chemical plants do — such crops, in other words, produce their own
fertilizer. Corn, wheat and rice, however, do not. Joyn Bio plans to use
the genetic engineering expertise Ginkgo has developed to modify the
microbes of such plants so that they, too, can pull nitrogen gas from
the air and convert it into fertilizer.
"There are thousands of companies trying to create agricultural breakthroughs, and one or more of these ideas could be huge one day." -Mark Connelly, Stephens analyst who covers fertilizer companies
Joyn Bio plans to develop other disruptive agriculture tech, still unspecified, over time, but nitrogen fixation is its first target for a reason. Hundreds of millions of tons of fertilizer flow into the global agricultural market each year, generating sales of nitrogen fertilizer worth billions of dollars to the biggest companies, such as Nutrien and CF Industries.
The global fertilizer
companies are acting as if their dominance will continue. Stephens
analyst Mark Connelly said the major fertilizer companies continue to
focus major capital expenditures, in the billions, on building
traditional fertilizer plants, an indication they don't see a need to
invest in heavily in potential disruptive technologies. The total global
fertilizer market is expected to reach as high as $250 billion in the
coming years, though potash-based fertilizers are also a significant
component of supply in addition to nitrogen-based soil nutrients.
It's not entirely new to attempt to disrupt the nitrogen supply chain in agriculture. Monsanto,
for example, created a venture with Evogene in 2007 to create a
nitrogen gene technology that would increase crop yields. It never came
"In general, agricultural
applications appear to be serving as testing grounds for many genetic
engineering companies for whom the human market is years away," said
John Prendergass, an associate director at Ben Franklin Technology
Partners in Philadelphia. "Given lower regulatory barriers and potential
for early revenue generation, partnerships like this make a lot of
Connelly said these
microbial start-ups that are working on ag replacement products, such as
microbes rather than fertilizer to fix nitrogen, are a huge area of
interest and activity. "There are thousands of companies trying to
create agricultural breakthroughs, and one or more of these ideas could
be huge one day, but it is also currently a huge space. It's the Wild
West right now, but there will be some real prizes in there," he said.
Bayer's $100 million
investment in Ginkgo is "a lot of money," Connelly said. "It is
basically giving them the mezzanine financing now so they won't be
forced to buy this start-up from a PE company in five years."
Synthetic biology is also
being extended to consumer goods, like foods, fragrances and clothing.
As a result, companies like Ginkgo are becoming increasingly attractive
bets for investors. From 2012 to 2016, investment in synthetic biology
start-ups increased from $374 million to $1.2 billion, according to data from CB Insights.
"Investors love platforms, and DNA is the ultimate platform," Prendergass said.
What remains challenging
is generating profits, and that's a direct result of how tricky the
concept of synthetic biology is. Composing sequences of genetic parts
that effectively produce a new drug or can enable the microbes of the
corn plant to produce its own fertilizer are complex problems.
"Inside of a living cell
there are thousands of proteins that enable it to make more of itself
and make your malaria drug, for instance. We don't understand those. We
don't understand how they work together," Arnold said.
That's a challenge that
Ginkgo Bioworks is tackling head-on in 2018. In addition to the money
the start-up raised last year, it also acquired
Gen9, a Boston company that prints DNA. Buying the company enabled
Ginkgo to begin printing sequences of DNA very cheaply, Kelly said.
Ginkgo has been building up what Kelly called a "code library of usable
Again, think of it like
software: When a programmer begins writing an app for the iPhone, they
don't start that project from scratch. There are programming languages
already available. The same is true for the synthetic biology projects
of tomorrow, Kelly said.
"As the cost comes down,
this technology can apply to other areas," Kelly said. "The whole idea
behind Ginkgo is that it's the same kind of work regardless of what
Published 6:03 AM ET Tue, 22 May 2018