One of the unique characters of plants, compared with animals, is their incredibly powerful metabolic networks that produce a diverse array of compounds essential for plant survival and reproduction. Many of these plant metabolites have been crucial to our societal uses, including but not limited to food, clothing, energy, and medicine. Recent technological advances in genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and synthetic biology approaches have led to rapid progress in our understanding of plant metabolic pathways and their regulation by internal and external signals. In addition, researchers have begun to modify and engineer new pathways to demonstrate the versatility of plant metabolism and produce useful compounds for practical applications. A group of leading researchers on this topic, including Xiao-Ya Chen, Anne Osborne, Vincenzo De Luca, Alain Goossens, Jirong Huang, and Harro Bouwmeester, served as the organizing editors inviting many in the field to contribute articles to this issue. After rigorous peer reviews, seven review articles and seven research articles have been accepted and included in this issue. These articles have showcased the cutting-edge research in plant metabolism and visions of harnessing the power of plant metabolism for the betterment of human society.

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