Bacterial CRISPR systems have been widely adopted to create operator-specified site-specific nucleases. Such nuclease action commonly results in loss-of-function alleles, facilitating functional analysis of genes and gene families We conducted a systematic comparison of components and T-DNA architectures for CRISPR-mediated gene editing in Arabidopsis, testing multiple promoters, terminators, sgRNA backbones and Cas9 alleles. We identified a T-DNA architecture that usually results in stable (i.e. homozygous) mutations in the first generation after transformation. Notably, the transcription of sgRNA and Cas9 in head-to-head divergent orientation usually resulted in highly active lines. Our Arabidopsis data may prove useful for optimization of CRISPR methods in other plants.

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